Air Brake,


Train Air Signal,


Steam Heat Equipment




Car Lighting Systems




*FORM 5573 11-31 1750 Bks.


















Who hereby agrees to return it to the proper officer, when called for or upon leaving the service.


New York, Susquehanna & Western R. R. Co.

Wilkes-Barre & Eastern R. R. Co.

The New Jersey & New York R. R. Co.

The Bath & Hammondsport R. R. Co.

Chicago & Erie R. R. Co.











Air Brake,


Train Air Signal,


Steam Heat Equipment




Car Lighting Systems







General Notice


General Rules and Instructions for Enginemen



Allowable Brake Pipe Leakage



Arriving at Intermediate and Final Terminals



Backing Freight Trains



Backing Passenger Trains



Back Up Movement



Brakes Applied from Unknown causes



Brakes Sticking



Broken Equalizing Reservoir Pipe



Burst Air Hose



Complete Release



Compressor Lubrication



Defective Feed Valve



Direct Release



Double Heading on Passenger Trains






Fireman’s Emergency Valve



Freight Train Handling



Graduated Release







Handling Freight Trains on Descending Grades



Helper Engines



Kick Off



One Application Stop



Passenger Train Handling



Piston Travel



Pusher Engines



Releasing Brakes



Reporting Defects



Road Train Brake Tests



Running Test






Slow Downs



Spot Stops



Standard Air Pressures



Starting Train



Stopping Train With Slack In



Stopping Freight Train With Slack Out



Stopping for Coal and Water



Taking Slack



Terminal Test



Testing Brakes on Freight Trains



Testing Brakes on Passenger Trains



Train Controlled by Engine Brakes



Two Application Stop



Watching Air Gauges



Yard Service




General Rules and Instructions for Trainmen and Inspectors



Air Brake Tests of Arriving Trains



Air Train Signal



Blow from Triple Valve Exhaust or Retainer



Brakes Not Applying in Test



Brakes Not Releasing



Broken Brake Pipe



Conductors Valve



High Speed Brakes



Hose Coupling Leaks and Gaskets



Opening Cocks on Either Brake or Signal Pipes



Passenger Equipment Handled in Freight Trains



Passenger Trains



Reporting Defects



Road Train Brake Tests



Terminal Train Brake Tests



Undesired Quick Action of Brakes



Use of Back Up Hose



Use of Conductor’s Valve






Instructions for Operating Steam Heat on Passenger Trains



Approaching Terminal Stations



Automatic Temperature Control-Vapor System



Care of Disconnected Cars



Care of Heaters in Cars



Chicago Car Heating Company-Vapor System



Dead Heading Cars



Fires in Cars



Instructions for Operating Steam Heat on Passenger Trains



Instructions to Conductors, Trainmen and Inspectors-Heating Trains



Instructions to Conductors and Trainmen



Instructions to Enginemen



Pullman and Business Cars



Sealed Cars



Special Instructions to Inspectors



Steam Escaping



Steam Trap



Steam Supply Valve



Terminal Yards





Directions for Management of the Pintsch System of Gas Lighting



General Instructions



To Extinguish the Light



To Light the Lamps



To Fill Car Receivers


Electric Car Lighting



General Instructions



Instructions to Electricians



Testing Lights



New York, Susquehanna and Western R. R. Co.

Wilkes-Barre and Eastern R. R. Co.

The New Jersey and New York R. R. Co.

The Bath and Hammondsport R. R. Co.

Chicago and Erie R. R. Co.



The rules herein set forth govern the above named railroads. They take effect 1931, superseding all previous rules and instructions inconsistent therewith.



Supt. of Motive Power




Vice President.




Safety is of the first importance in the discharge of duty.

Obedience to the rules is essential to safety.

Employees whose duties are prescribed by these rules must provide themselves with a copy.

Employees must be conversant with and obey the rules and special instructions. If in doubt as to their meaning they must apply to proper authority for an explanation.

Employees must pass the required examinations.




499. When taking charge of locomotives, Enginemen must know that air brake apparatus on engine and tender is in good working order and free from leakage; that the air compressor is working properly and well lubricated; that the feed valves and compressor governors control the pressures as prescribed by Rule 508. That the locomotive and tender brake applies with an eight pound brake pipe reduction; that piston travel is as prescribed by Rule 509; that air signal whistle responds to light reductions made at signal pipe cock at rear of tender; that brake pipe and signal pipe are not obstructed; and that water is drained from main reservoir.

500. Engineman must be familiar with rules for Inspectors and Trainmen.




501. Operate lubricator freely when the compressor is first started, after which the lubricator will be set to feed as follows:



With N. Y. No. 5 Compressor, 3 drops in 2 minutes.

With Westinghouse 8½" C. C. Compressor, 2 drops per minute for each compressor.

With Westinghouse 9½" Compressor, 1 drop per minute.

502. The OCA oil cup for air cylinders shall be filled with valve oil.

503. The Single Unit oil cup for air cylinders must be filled with standard prescribed oil for air cylinders.

504. The piston rod must have a good swab, that must be kept well oiled and the piston rod packing must be kept well lubricated, since groans in the air pump can often be stopped in this manner.




505. If the equalizing reservoir pipe is broken, plug it at the brake valve connection. When this condition exists in order to make service application first close double heading cock, place brake valve handle in service position, leaving it there, then open double heading cock to allow brake pipe pressure to reduce desired amount. Watch brake pipe gauge and when desired reduction has been made slowly close double heading cock. A further reduction can be made by opening double heading cock, carefully closing it again to stop reduction.

505-a. To release place brake valve handle in release position, then open double heading cock observing rules for releasing.

505-b. The sudden opening of double heading cock under above conditions may cause an emergency application of brakes on short trains. Sudden closing may cause head brakes to release.




506. When feed valve fails to control brake pipe pressure allowing pressure to vary, carry brake valve handle in full release position, adjust low pressure governor to brake pipe pressure and disconnect distributing or automatic control valve release pipe.



507. On double cab locomotives an emergency valve located within convenient reach of the Fireman is connected to the brake pipe, and in case of an emergency this valve must be immediately opened and allowed to remain open until engine has come to stop.





Brake Pipe Pressures:


Passenger-High Speed

110 lbs.


Passenger-High Speed

110 lbs.


Passenger-Local and Suburban

90 lbs.


Freight-Level Grades

70 lbs.


Loaded Freight-Heavy Grades

90 lbs.

Main Reservoir Pressures:


Passenger-High Speed

130 lbs.


Passenger-Local and Suburban:



Low Pressure Governor

110 lbs.


High Pressure Governor

130 lbs.


Freight-Low Pressure Governor

100 lbs.


Freight-High Pressure Governor

130 lbs.

Safety Valve for Straight Air Brake

50 lbs.

Safety Valve for ET Equipment

68 lbs.

Safety Valve for LT Equipment

50 lbs.

Reducing Valve for Independent or Straight Air Brake

45 lbs.

Reducing Valve for Train Air Signal

60 lbs.




509. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released.

The maximum piston travel when locomotive is standing shall be as follows:



Cam brake

Other forms of driving wheel brake


Engine truck brake


Tender brake






510. Enginemen must give close attention to air gauges and know that proper pressures are available at all times.




511. Should the brakes apply on a passenger train from an unknown cause, it indicates that a conductor’s valve has been opened, a hose has burst, other serious leaks have occurred, or train has parted. In such a case close throttle immediately, lap automatic brake valve and leave it on lap until train has stopped and signal to release has been given.

511-a. Should brake pipe flexible connection between engine and tender be broken and signal connection remain intact, plug broken conduit toward locomotive, couple brake pipe and signal hose at pilot, couple signal hose at back of tender with brake pipe hose on head car, cut out signal reducing valve, make a test of train brakes and proceed being careful about approaching dangerous points as an emergency application through brake valve is practically impossible. If all flexible connections are broken use air hose in place of brake pipe conduit and cut out signal reducing valve and tank brake.

511-b. Repairs must be made at first division terminal if possible.




512. When a service application is made the brakes sometimes apply in emergency, usually because of a dirty or sticky triple valve. Trainmen or Inspectors are required to locate this triple valve and cut it out at once, proceeding as follows: If the undesired quick action occurs on the second reduction of an application have a reduction of 5 or 6 pounds made and if the brakes do not go on in emergency look for one not applied. Finding a brake not applied, have another reduction made watching

the brake cylinder piston. If it flies out suddenly cut out that brake, have brakes released, fully recharged and retested. No more undesired quick action occurring the one cut out is doubtless defective.

512-a. Each test must be made from a full charge. Undesired quick action with UC equipment will be indicated by quick action valves exhausting brake pipe pressure. When this equipment is mixed with PM and LN an Inspector or Trainman should station himself near the engine so that he may learn from the engineer when the undesired quick action occurs.

512-b. When the above method cannot be used on account of length of train or when testing with UC equipment, divide the train by closing an angle cock in middle of train. On a passenger train wait at least three minutes after gaining full pressure before applying brakes, then have engineer make a straight 25 pound reduction on section of train under test. If kicker is found in head section, subdivide that section until kicker is located. If not, open angle cocks and subdivide rear section until kicker is found.




513. At the end of the run, Enginemen must report in detail on the prescribed Form defects in air brake, signal and steam heat apparatus.

514. On passenger trains defects in air brake, air signal or steam heat apparatus must be reported by wire to the Superintendent at the next Terminal.

514-a. If defects in the brake and signal apparatus are not remedied before the crew gives up the train or leaves the cars, an air brake defect card, Form 2251, must be attached.

514-b. On freight trains defective triple valves causing undesired quick action and not located must be reported by wire to the next Division Superintendent who will arrange with terminal forces to locate trouble.



515. Where circumstances permit, Trainmen must accompany Inspectors on a personal inspection of the air brake equipment to satisfy themselves that everything is in proper condition and to become acquainted with the method of overcoming defects so that they may make any necessary road repairs.

516. Special attention must be given to stopping leaks since they are not only a serious drain on the air pumps, but also interfere with the proper handling of the brakes.




517. Before coupling to train engineer must know that standard pressures are maintained on locomotive and when coupling on must make a full service application leaving brake valve in lap position until cocks are opened on engine and cars. Enginemen must then place brake valve handle in release position until train is charged to within 5 lbs. of standard brake pipe pressure.

517-a. Upon receipt of proper signal make a 15 lb. continuous reduction then lap brake valve. During this operation enginemen must observe brake pipe gauge for indication of undesired quick action and while brake valve is in lap position must determine the amount of brake pipe leakage which must not be more than 5 lbs. per minute. After which the reduction must be increased to a total of 20 lbs.

517-b. Upon receipt of proper signal release brakes as described under heading "Complete Release."




518. At Intermediate terminals where engine is to be changed or train broken up and at final terminals after completing stop, Engineman on incoming engine must reduce brake pipe 25 lbs. below standard pressure leaving brakes applied until signaled to release.

519. On passenger trains the signal to apply brakes must be given by means of the air signal and after inspection is made signal to release must be given from the last car.

520. The rear car on passenger trains must have the brake operative at all times.

520-a. In the event of the brake on rear car becoming inoperative between terminals, the car at the first opportunity must be switched ahead. In such event, a Trainman shall be stationed on the car at all times until it is switched ahead, in order to operate the hand brake, should the car become detached.

521. When car is equipped with double PM or LN equipment with only one unit defective cut out and bleed off the defective unit leaving other unit operative. Under these conditions car may remain on rear end of train.




522. If a brake does not apply when the test is made, determine first if it is cut in and the auxiliary resevoir charged. If it does not then apply and the trouble cannot be located and remedied, apply an air brake defect card, except at Terminals.




523. If a brake fails to release, determine if the exhaust port in the triple valve or the retaining valve or retaining valve pipe is not plugged. If these are clear and the brake has not yet released, ascertain if the brake rigging is not caught on something under the car. If it becomes necessary to bleed it off, have the Engineman apply and release the brakes again to see if it will not release; if not, cut the brake out and apply an air brake defect card, except at terminals.





524. At terminals where trains are charged before the engines are coupled on or where the engine is changed, it is forbidden to open the front cocks on the train before the engine is coupled since this causes loss of time, heavy loss of air and useless applications of the brakes, it being necessary to recharge before the brakes can be tested.

524-a. The angle cock on the engine must always be opened first, so as to charge the empty hose from the engine and prevent the application of the brakes on the train when the angle cock on the car is opened.

524-b. The handles of angle cocks when open stand in line with the brake pipe, across the pipe when closed. The handles of the signal and cut-out cocks stand across the pipe when open and in line with the pipe when closed. A slot is cut across the end of the plug in each cock as a safe guard against the cock being turned into the wrong position, as might happen if the handle was improperly applied. This slot is always in line with the pipe when the cock is open and across the pipe when the cock is closed.

524-c. To avoid emergency application with possible damage to triple valves and brake rigging, when angle or cut-out cocks are opened for any purpose, they must be opened gradually.




525. On a passenger train, after engine or engine crew has been changed, or an angle cock closed, except for cutting off cars from the rear, and before descending grades as called for in Special Instructions, a running test of brakes must be made as soon as speed of train permits. Such test should be made by applying train brakes with sufficient force to ascertain whether they are operating properly.

525-a. Steam or power should not be shut off unless conditions require it.

525-b. In case the brakes do not operate properly in test, the signal for brakes must be given.




526. Blank

527. On passenger trains, before an engine is changed or an angle cock closed except for cutting off one or more cars from rear of train, the brakes must be applied. After recoupling and opening angle cocks and before proceeding, an application and release test must be made from the engine. Inspectors or trainmen will note that rear brakes of train apply and then signal for a release, noting that rear brakes release.

528. At point where motive power, or engine crew or train crew is changed, tests of the train brake system must be made as follows: After the brake system on a freight train is charged to not less than 5 pounds below the standard pressure for that train, and on a passenger train to at least 70 pounds, a 15-pound service reduction must be made upon proper request or signal, brake pipe leakage noted as indicated by the brake pipe gauge (which must not exceed that specified in Rule 539-a), after which the reduction must be increased to 25 pounds; then an examination of the train brakes must be made to determine if brakes are applied in service application on each car. When this examination has been completed, proper release signal must be given and each brake examined to see that it releases properly.

529. When one or more cars are added to a train at any point subsequent to a terminal test, the cars added when in position where they are to be hauled in train must be tested as per Rule 545. Before proceeding it



must be known that brake pipe pressure is being restored as indicated by caboose gauge and the rear brakes are released.

529-a. In the absence of a caboose gauge, a test must be made as prescribed in Rule 527.

530. Before a train is operate down a heavy grade requiring the use of retaining valves, it must be known that they are in such condition that the speed of the train can be safely controlled by the engineman.

531. Whenever retaining valves are to be used, it is required that they be turned up, beginning at the head end and working toward the rear and that they be turned down beginning at the rear and working towards the head end. All handles are required to be turned down at the foot of every grade. When the handle of the large retaining valve, having three positions, is midway between the vertical and horizontal, High Pressure will be retained in the brake cylinder. When the handle stands horizontally, Low Pressure will be retained.

531-a. If the retaining valves check the speed of the train too much and the Engineman whistles off brakes, Trainmen are required to turn down enough from the rear end to prevent the train from stalling, and to immediately turn them up when the speed has sufficiently increased.

532. Trainmen are required to keep constant watch of the trains and if the wheels on any car are seen to be overheated, to turn down the retaining valves on such cars until the wheels are cool.

533. Whenever the locomotive is to be detached or a stop made on a heavy grade under circumstances in which the efficiency of the air brake system may be impaired by allowing the train to stand with the brake applied, a sufficient number of hand brakes must be set to hold the train before air brakes are released or engine cut off. When ready to start, hand brakes must not be released

until it is known that the air brake system has been fully recharged.

533-a. On a descending grade, before starting, the hand brakes must be released from the rear toward the head end and in case of a freight train, the retaining valves must be in holding position before the hand brakes are released.

533-b. On an ascending grade the hand brakes must be released from the head toward the rear end.




534. Where inspectors are employed to make a general inspection of cars upon arrival at a terminal they must make a visual inspection of retaining valves, release valves and rods, retaining valve pipes, brake rigging, hand brakes, hose and position of angle cocks, and make necessary repairs or mark for repair tracks any cars to which yard repairs cannot be made promptly.

534-a. Freight trains arriving at terminals where facilities are available and at which special instructions provide for immediate brake inspection and repairs, shall be left with air brake fully applied. Inspection of brakes and needed repairs must be made as soon as practicable.




535. Before coupling to a train enginemen must see that Standard Pressures are maintained on engine with the brake valve in running position. After coupling on and before angle cocks are opened a full service application must be made and brake valve handle returned to lap position.

536. Charge empty brake pipes as described under heading "Terminal Test."



537. The test of brakes required is explained in Trainmen’s Rules under heading "Terminal Train Brake Tests" and enginemen must know that the proper test has been made as prescribed in these rules.

538. Enginemen must be notified as to the number of cars and the relative position of loads and empties in the train before leaving a terminal.




539. In charging up empty brake pipes, place brake valve handle in full release position and leave it there until brake pipe pressure is built up to within about five pounds of Standard Pressure, then move handle to running position before brake pipe pressure gets above adjustment of feed valve. In testing brakes, after proper pressure has been obtained, upon receipt of proper signal make a continuous brake pipe reduction of 15 lbs., moving brake valve handle to lap position, watching brake pipe gauge one minute for brake pipe leakage.

539-a. On freight trains the maximum allowable brake pipe leakage is as follows:

50 cars or less

7 lbs. per minute

50 to 70 cars

6 lbs. per minute

Over 70 cars

5 lbs. per minute

539-b. Having noted leakage, reduce brake pipe pressure until a total of 25 lbs. has been drawn off.

539-c. When inspection is completed and upon receipt of proper signal, brake should be released as per instruction under heading "Releasing Brakes."





540. Foreman of inspectors and inspectors are jointly responsible for the condition of air brakes and train air signal equipment on cars leaving their station.

541. The train signal system on passenger trains shall be tested and known to be in suitable condition for service.

542. Each train must have air brakes on all cars in effective operating condition, except in case of emergency, but at no time shall the number of operative brakes be less than permitted by Federal Requirements.

543. Terminal tests of the train brake system must be made as prescribed by Rules at points where necessary to insure that the condition of the brakes is as prescribed by Rule 542.

544. Condensation must be blown out from yard air line or engine before connecting to train.

544-a. The train must be charged to required pressure, retaining valves and retaining valve pipes on freight cars inspected and known to be in suitable condition for service, and the position of angle cocks, cut-out cocks and hose noted. A careful examination must be made for leaks and necessary repairs made to reduce leakage to a minimum.

545. After the brake system on a freight train is charged to within 5 lbs. of standard pressure for that train and on passenger train when charged to standard brake pipe pressure at originating terminals and at all other points to at least 70 lbs., a 15 lb. reduction must be made (except as provided by Rule 512) upon request of proper signal, then note the number of pounds of brake pipe leakage per minute as indicated by brake pipe gauge after which the reduction must be increased to a total of 25 lbs. Then an examination of train brakes must be made to determine if brakes are applied in service application on each car; that the piston travel is correct, and that brake rigging does not bind or foul.

545-a. When examination is completed in accordance with Rule 545, proper release signal must be given and each brake examined to see that it releases properly.



545-b. Brake pipe leakage shall not be greater than specified in Rules 517-a and 539-a.

545-c. Piston travel less than seven inches and more than nine inches must be adjusted to nominally eight inches.

545-d. When the test is completed the inspector or trainman who made the test will personally inform the engineman and conductor and advise them the number of cars in the train and the number having inoperative brakes.

546. Enginemen must be informed. before leaving a terminal as to the relative position of loads and empties in the train.

547. It is forbidden to permit a passenger train to leave an initial terminal or except on authority of the Superintendent a division terminal with the brakes on any car cut out or in defective condition.

548. It is forbidden to allow a freight train to leave any terminal with brakes on any car cut out or inoperative except as mentioned below.

549. A car of live stock or perishable freight with inoperative brake may be permitted to leave or pass terminals and repair points upon written authority of division Superintendents. In no cases shall a train be operated with less than 85% braking power.

550. During standing test, brakes must not be applied or released until proper signal is given.

551. When a train is tested by a yard plant, an engineers brake valve, or a suitable testing device which provides for an increase and reduction of brake pipe pressure at the same or slower rate as with the engineers’ brake valve, should be used and be connected to the same point in the train to which the engine is to be attached.

552. The train should be charged and tested as prescribed by Rule 544-a and 545-a and when practical should be kept charged until the road locomotive is attached to train, when an application and release test should be made as prescribed by Rule 527.

553. If brake valve or testing device specified in Rule 551 is not used or if after testing the brakes from a yard plant the train is not kept charged until road locomotive is attached, the brakes must be tested as prescribed in Rule 545.

554. Before adjusting piston travel or working on brake rigging, cut out cock in branch pipe must be closed, and reservoirs bled. Where cut out cock is in cylinder pipe the latter only need be closed.




555. Where a triple valve or retaining valve has a slight blow, if it cannot be stopped by lightly tapping on the triple, cut the brake out, bleed the auxiliary reservoir, then cut the brake in again; if the blow does not then stop, it is forbidden to plug either the triple exhaust, retaining valve, or broken retaining valve pipe since if plugged the brake cannot be released. It is required that the brake be cut out and an air brake defect card applied to the car. If, after an emergency application, a heavy blow is observed from some triple valve or retaining valve and the brakes apply again, tapping on the bottom of the triple valve or cutting the brake out, bleeding the auxiliary reservoir and then quickly cutting the brake in again, will usually overcome the trouble, which is caused by the emergency or vent valve sticking open.




556. Many leaks in hose couplings are due to connections improperly made in coupling up. To properly



couple it is required that the rubber gaskets in the hose couplings be placed squarely over one another before turning the couplings into position. This insures a good joint and if not done, the rubber rings are liable to be distorted or overlap, thus making a poor joint and soon spoiling the gasket.

556-a. Defective coupling gaskets must be replaced. The practice of cutting or trimming the gaskets is forbidden. In the application of coupling gaskets, the grooves must be thoroughly cleaned, the gaskets then applied in the usual manner with the flanges inserted in the groove of the couplings. All employees whose duties include the application of gaskets are required to be provided with a coupling groove cleaning tool, with which the old gasket can be readily removed and the groove well cleaned.

556-b. It is forbidden to strike hose couplings hard where there are leaks, as in that manner the guard arm pins will be bent or broken rendering the couplings useless.




557. When back up movement is to be made with train brakes controlled by back up hose, a standing train brake test must be made as prescribed by Rules 558 and 558-a-b and c during which the brake valve handle shall remain in running position. Enginemen shall note amount of brake pipe reduction and cylinder pressure obtained.




558. When back up hose is to be used, a train brake test must be made before backing as follows:

558-a. While standing make a brake pipe reduction through back up hose and see that train brakes apply and release promptly before backing.

558-b. After train has started, before reaching a point where rear end application may be necessary a running test must be made reducing brake pipe pressure through back up hose to ascertain holding power of brakes and volume of blow at exhaust necessary to apply them.

558-c. Too frequent use of back up hose may cause pressure to be reduced to a dangerous degree.

559. When testing brakes on trains, Trainmen and Inspectors must observe the methods prescribed for Enginemen.




560. When a back up movement is to be made without the use of the back up hose proceed as follows:

560-a. While still using steam make an initial reduction heavy enough to apply an train brakes and prevent engine brakes from applying by means provided.

560-b. After train brakes are applied use only enough steam to keep train bunched closing throttle just before stop is completed.

560-c. Should the initial reduction be insufficient add to it by a series of light reductions of 3 or 4 pounds each until braking power is great enough to complete stop. Stop should be made with as little braking power as conditions will permit.

561. When back up hose is to be used to control train brakes the enginemen shall exercise care in approaching dangerous points and will share the responsibility for safe movement with trainmen operating back up hose.





562. When making stop in back up movement of train, make brake pipe reduction of 6 to 8 lbs., if not using steam do so before reduction is started keeping engine brake off. After initial reduction is completed no further reduction should be made. As speed of train reduces, increase throttle opening, having throttle wide open when stop is completed. When stop is completed, reduce brake pipe pressure full 20 pounds to insure prompt release of all brakes. The use of straight air brake when backing long freight trains should be avoided as far as possible.




563. Leading engine must control brakes on train and have whistle signal operative from train. All other engines must have brake valves in running position, double heading cocks closed and signal reducing valves cut out.

563-a. Before attaching helper engines to the head end of a train, brakes must be fully applied by regular engineer and double heading cock on regular engine closed. Leading engineman must release brakes and make train brake test as prescribed by Rule 527.

563-b. When leading engine is to be cut off from train, its engineer must leave train brakes fully applied. The regular engineman then in charge will open double heading cock and comply with Rule 527.

563-c. If necessity demands control of brakes by second engine, stop, have a full understanding and comply with Rule 527 before proceeding.

563-d. At first siding, if possible, change engines so that leading engine controls brakes.

563-e. Brake valves on all but leading engine, under all other circumstances must be cut out and remain so unless an emergency arises unknown to engineer on lead-

ing engine. Should such an emergency arise open double heading cock and immediately place brake valve handle in emergency position leaving it there until the train stops.




564. After helper engine is attached ahead of regular engine on freight trains enginemen on regular engine must close double heading cock, leaving brake valves in running position. Helper engine will then make an application and release test prescribed by Rule 528.

564-a. All engines but leading engine must have automatic brake valve cut out.




565. Except as otherwise specified, all air hose must be coupled, in order that the air brakes on pusher engines will operate from lead engine. The double heading cocks under brake valves on all but the lead engine must be closed, air pumps kept running and handles of brake valves in running position.

566. When high speed trains are to be handled by switch engines, the engines must be equipped with duplex pump governors and safety valve or valves to limit brake cylinder pressures to 50 pounds with LT and 68 pounds with ET equipment.

567. The low pressure governor top must be set for 100 lbs. and the high pressure top at 130 lbs. Before coupling on high speed trains the 1/4 inch cut out cock in low pressure governor pipe must be closed to allow main reservoir pressure to be increased to 130 lbs. The feed valve must be adjusted for 110 lbs.

567-a. When the switch engine is equipped with but one governor, adjust that governor to 130 lbs. and feed valve to 110 lbs.



568. After switch engines are cut off from high speed brake cars, brake pipe pressure must be reduced below 70 lbs. feed valve readjusted to that pressure and low pressure governor top cut in.




569. Train brakes may be graduated off only when cars are equipped with LN, PC or UC equipment and then only when Supplementary Reservoir is cut in with LN equipment, and when direct and graduated release caps are in graduated release position with PC and UC equipment. Such trains as are to be handled in graduated release will be designated by time table or special instructions.




570. While still using steam make an application of 12 to 15 pounds depending on speed. This application should be split up into two or more reductions, the first of which must not be less than 8 pounds. After brakes have applied on entire train ease off to a drifting throttle.

570-a. When about 400 feet from stop make two or three graduated releases so that just as stop is made cylinder pressure is almost entirely depleted.

570-b. To graduate the release with trains of over 5 cars, use release position for a second or slightly longer with long trains and immediately lap brake valve. For succeeding graduations use running or holding position for two seconds lapping brake valve at once. The amount of cylinder pressure released is governed by the rise in brake pipe pressure.

570-c. With trains of five cars or less use running position for all graduations. The time in running position for first graduation must be slightly longer than for succeedIng releases in order to start valves to release position. After release is completed a short kick off should be made.

570-d. The heavier the application the greater will be the number of graduations possible.




571. By direct release is meant a complete release of cylinder pressure when valves once assume release position.




572. When speed of train is high while still working steam make a 12 to 15 pound application split up into two or more reductions, the first of which should be at least 8 pounds. After train brakes are applied ease off to, a drifting throttle. This application must be made soon enough to reduce speed to 15 miles per hour at a point 500 feet from stopping point.

572-a. When speed is so reduced use release and running position long enough to release train and engine brakes and immediately return brake valve to lap position. Complete stop with an initial reduction of 7 pounds. With trains of less than 9 cars when stop is about to be completed when grade conditions will permit release train and engine brakes to avoid disagreeable lurch.




573. When making stops with long trains from low speeds a two application stop must not be attempted.

573-a. A one application stop must be made with as little brake cylinder pressure as possible.

573-b. When a light application has been used to bring train to a stop, after stop is made make another application heavy enough to insure the release of all brakes.





574. If straight air or independent brake is to be used to complete stop at water plugs or coal shutes, having reduced speed with train brakes, reduce brake cylinder pressure on engine and tender to ten pounds or less retaining same while releasing train brakes. Add to this cylinder pressure with straight air or independent brake as judgment directs to complete stop. After once gathering slack in train, it must be held in until stop is completed.

574-a. As train is about to stop make a 7 pound brake pipe reduction to prevent slack running out due to recoil of buffer and draft springs.

574-b. If stop can be made smoothly with automatic brake avoid using locomotive brakes only, to complete stop.




575. To completely release passenger train brakes (does not include partial release with graduated release equipment) move brake valve handle to release position, back to running position and then, after waiting 7 seconds, make the kick-off. How long to stay in release the first time depends mainly on the length of trains, but to an extent on the main reservoir pressure. The right time in release is indicated when the brake pipe hand shows at least 5 or 6 pounds more after returning to running position than before moving from lap to release, and will vary from a second with the very short train to not more than 15 seconds with the longest train. However after returning to running position the brake pipe hand must not show a pressure higher than the feed valve adjustment.




576. A kick-off consists of moving the handle of the automatic brake valve from running position to release for a second and then back to running position. When

release position is used to release brakes it should invariably be followed by the kick-off about 7 seconds after returning to running position.

576-a. Release position recharges the head brakes faster than the rear ones, and returning to running position allows the brake pipe pressure to drop enough at head end to occasionally apply some head brakes lightly. As this cannot be avoided, the head brakes should be allowed to apply as much as they will then the kick-off will release them without so charging as to cause another reapplication.

576-b. A reduction of 10 lbs. in brake pipe pressure must be made before attempting to release with 8 to 10 cars. With over 10 cars an application of 15 lbs. must be made before attempting a release.




577. An emergency application must not be used except to avoid injury or damage to persons or property.

577-a. In the event of undesired quick action occurring, enginemen must notify train crews.

577-b. UC equipment will automatically assume emergency position when brake pipe pressure falls below 35 lbs.

577-c. An emergency application made after a full service with UC equipment will build cylinder pressure to within 10 lbs. of standard pressure, carried in brake pipe.

577-d. Should an emergency arise after a full service has been made use emergency position of brake valve.

577-e. A running release after an emergency must not be attempted with more than 6 cars at a speed of less than 40 miles per hour.





578. To avoid brakes sticking with long passenger train make an application of not less than 15 lbs. before releasing.

579. After an emergency application, undesired or otherwise, immediately lap the brake valve. A release must not be attempted until brake pipe pressure stops falling.

580. If brake pipe has been overcharged by using release position too long with train brake equipment in direct release, reduce brake pipe pressure to 60 lbs. allowing safety valves and high speed reducing valves to reduce brake cylinder pressure to that amount before releasing.

580-a. If overcharge occurs while running, if an application cannot be made without loss of time maintain high pressure until next stop is made after which handle brake valve as described above.

580-b. When an overcharge has been made with equipment in graduated release reduce brake pipe pressure to 60 lbs., to allow time for brake cylinder pressure to be blown down by safety valves and high speed reducing valves, release and repeat until brakes remain released with standard brake pipe pressure maintained.




581. Whenever possible reduce speed for slow orders, while working steam, with train brakes only.




582. When taking slack on a passenger train proceed as follows:

582-a. With steam in locomotive cylinders apply straight air or independent brake, then change engine from forward to back gear. Graduate off engine brakes and if necessary use a little steam to gain more slack. This having been done again apply engine brakes after which put engine in forward gear. Graduate off engine brakes and use only throttle enough to start train.

582-b. In taking slack on an ascending grade apply train and engine brakes lightly before reversing engine from forward to back gear. Release engine brakes and use steam enough to bunch train. Make a further reduction of brake pipe pressure after bunching train in order to insure the release of all brakes. With engine and train brakes applied reverse engine to forward gear, release train and engine brakes opening throttle carefully as soon as all brakes are released and before train slack can run out.




583. On passenger trains when an emergency arises the conductors valve must be opened wide at once and be left open until train stops.




584. When brake pipe on passenger cars is broken, the signal pipe must be used as a brake pipe. Couple brake pipe hose on car ahead with signal pipe hose on head end of car with broken brake pipe and couple signal hose on rear end of car to brake pipe hose on following car. Whistle signal will not be operative on that car or following cars.




585. When a car not equipped with high speed brakes is attached to a high speed brake train, a safety valve must be provided for the purpose and be screwed into the oil plug hole in the pressure head of the brake cylinder. Unless it is known that the movement of the car will be made in a high speed brake train, the safety valve must be removed at the end of the run.



586. Safety valves must be kept on hand at inspection points.

587. To avoid rough handling or tearing the train in two when the brakes on high speed brake trains apply in emergency when a service application only has been made, if possible, Trainmen must locate the defective triple valve and cut that brake out. The next inspection point must then be notified by wire and on arrival at that point, the triple valve must be changed or the car cut out of the train.




588. If a defective car discharge valve is found on the road, it must be cut out by closing the cock in the branch pipe to which it is connected. When the air signal has been cut out on any car, the Conductor must be notified immediately and report such defective car discharge valve for repairs.

588-a. On trains of less than 10 cars when using the air signal, pull directly down on the cord for one full second for each intended blast of the air signal whistle and allow three seconds to elapse after each pull.

588-b. On trains of 10 or more cars, the car discharge valve must be held open somewhat longer and another second allowed to elapse after each pull.




589. Locomotive Brake must be known to be in good condition.

590. The successful handling of a freight train depends entirely upon the Engineman’s ability to control the slack of the train, not permitting the slack to change suddenly, while making a stop. The slack in the train should be kept "in" or "out" depending upon Engineman’s judgment which method would be the more successful.



591. After any brake release do not attempt to start or, if running, to begin the use of steam until ample time has been allowed for brakes to release which will require about 2 seconds per car. In releasing observe the instructions under heading "Releasing Brakes." In starting a freight train, keep the engine at a very slow and uniform speed for at least three car lengths, and don’t vary this rule because less distance may not have started entire train. Also keep speed low enough for Trainmen to inspect entire train, release any stuck brakes and get on safely keeping a look out to rear until they are on.




592. In slacking to start a train, endeavor to take either a foot or two, or the slack of entire train, take but little, if slacking the entire train will allow the rear end to run back, as an attempt to take all then will almost certainly cause damage. With no helper at rear take all the slack where practicable.




593. Where speed is 12 miles per hour or higher, and steam is being used or can be, have the slack all out when the reduction of 6 to 8 pounds is begun. Use heavy pulling throttle while service exhaust is discharging and prevent the locomotive brakes from applying at this time.

593-a. As service exhaust ends and effect of brake is felt, reduce to a moderate pulling throttle, easing off as necessary to maintain this as speed reduces, particularly as the speed gets low. Close throttle two or three engine lengths before final reduction is started, (not over 40 ft. from stopped).

593-b. After the first reduction allow locomotive brake to apply to any extent brake pipe leakage and final reduction will cause. The most successful method of handling a freight train with empty cars behind loads is with train stretched slack all out.





594. At points where it will be most convenient to keep slack "in" shut off steam gradually (drifting throttle) and allow ample time for the engine to drift the slack in as much as it will before commencing to apply brakes.

595-a. At ordinary speeds make each stop with one application but with two reductions. Make first reduction sufficient and at a point to insure that it alone will, with no additional reduction, prevent the engine from passing the objective point. Then when not over 40 ft. from stopped make second reduction of 8 or 10 pounds. The object of this final reduction is to start the slack in at a time too late for it to run out again before the stop is completed.

595-b. It is very important that when stopping from ordinary speeds one application, with two reductions be followed. With either method stopping with slack "in" or "out", the amount of first reduction should not be less than 6 lbs. or more than 12.

595-c. When stopping freight trains for coal or water, air brakes must be applied by the Enginemen and the engine detached, unless the conditions are such, in the judgment of the Engineman, as to make such action unnecessary to prevent possible damage to lading and equipment. After re-coupling to train a road test of the brakes is necessary.




596. When train is being controlled by engine brakes only, if it becomes necessary to apply the train brakes to aid, (which will be rare if good judgment is used), do not release or reduce the engine brake holding power before commencing the automatic application, as to do so would be liable to cause very serious damage. Instead, as the automatic application is begun, merely insure, by use of means provided, that engine brake cylinder pressure does not increase to an amount that is liable to slide wheels. In fact, after the head brakes

have begun to apply, but not before, the engine brake cylinder pressure may be reduced or entirely released without detrimental results.




597. On freight trains of 60 to 100 cars a release of the brakes should not be attempted unless at least a 20lbb. reduction in brake pipe pressure has been made, and then not at a speed slower than 20 miles per hour. Over 100 cars a release should not be attempted unless at least a 25lbb. reduction of brake pipe pressure has been made, and then not at speed slower than 25 miles per hour.

597-a. After an emergency application on a freight train the handle of the brake valve must be left in full emergency position until train stops.

597-b. When release is made, place brake valve handle in release position for 15 seconds, running positions for 30 seconds, then make a "kick-off" for two seconds and then leave brake valve handle in running position.

597-c. Do not attempt to start, or, if running, to begin use of steam until time has been allowed for all brakes to release which will require about two and one-half seconds per car.




598. Brake pipe pressure on loaded trains about to descend a grade of 1% or over must be raised to 90 lbs., low pressure governor cut out and main reservoir pressure pumped up to adjustment of high pressure governor.

599. Enginemen must know that brakes on engine and train are in good condition before descending grade.

600. Before a train is operated down a grade requiring the use of retaining valves, it must be known that they



are in such condition that the speed of the train can be safely controlled by the enginemen.

600-a. The Engineman and Conductor shall decide the number of pressure retaining valves to be used.

600-b. As soon as possible after foot of grade is reached, high pressure must be reduced to normal, except on the Kent, 1st District and the Mahoning 2nd District.

601. On heavy descending grades, the first reduction should be 8 to 12 pounds, or enough within these limits to insure application of all brakes.

601-a. If this reduction does not effect the speed of the train sufficiently; make another that will, and, when speed is properly reduced, release brakes and note how retaining valves are holding.

602. At each reduction the engineman must note that the pressure flows, freely from brake pipe exhaust and if it is shorter than is consistent with length of brake pipe, he must bring the train to a stop and have train inspected for closed angle cocks, or frozen or obstructed brake pipe.

603. In making applications on descending grades, for re-charging, advantage must be taken of curves and let-ups, no more air being used than is necessary to slow the trains down sufficiently for re-charging, before the brakes are released and before the speed of the train has increased any considerable or dangerous amount, it must be sufficiently reduced to permit ample time for re-charging the auxiliary reservoirs. In the event of the speed increasing too rapidly before the auxiliary reservoirs are fully re-charged, check it more than before by applying the brakes and holding them on longer.

604. In the event of the air pump stopping or failing to maintain the required pressure on descending grades, Enginemen must apply the air brakes so as to stop the

train, if possible, and to immediately call for hand brakes. It is forbidden to attempt to start the pump until it is known that the train is properly secured.

605. Enginemen must not allow train to exceed a speed which cannot be promptly checked by the brakes. Since a 25 lb. brake pipe reduction represents full braking power, it is unsafe to exceed 20 lbs. reduction before the speed has been sufficiently checked. In starting, the speed must be kept low gradually increasing to the proper rate. The poorer the holding power the lower the speed must be kept to maintain safety.




606. If an air hose should burst on a descending grade or the brakes apply in emergency from any cause, Enginemen must immediately signal for hand brakes and place the brake valve handle in lap position.




607. When passenger equipment cars are handled in freight trains, the emergency reservoir must be disconnected and its connection in control valve plugged, graduated release cap set in direct release, and piston travel adjusted to 9 inches, except as otherwise provided for in special instructions.

607-a. Passenger cars having LN equipment must have supplementary reservoir cut out drain cock in supplementary reservoir left open and piston travel adjusted to 9 inches.




608. On freight trains it is forbidden to use the conductors valve for stopping the train while moving forward if it is possible to have stop made by engineer. When necessary to use it for stopping the train, it must be opened gradually and kept blowing until train stops.






609. The supply of steam is taken from the boiler of the locomotive through a "Main Steam Valve" and passes through a pressure reducing valve into the train pipe, to which is attached a safety valve set to carry 105 pounds pressure. The train pipe of each car is connected to the radiating pipes inside of the car by a branch pipe, in which is placed the supply valve.

610. The train pipe valves are placed in the train pipe of each car directly under the platforms except in a few coaches and sleeping cars where the train pipe valves may be located so as to be operated from the inside of the car. These are used to shut off the end of the train pipe at the rear of the train as specified in the instructions. The water of condensation from the pipes in each car escapes through a steam trap in nearly all steam heat systems, but some private line cars have only a drip valve for this purpose. The blow-off valve is placed at the back end of the trap and provides for the free escape of air and drainage of water and it is required that it be opened when steam is first turned into the pipes.

611. When heating a train always open the steam valve wide and regulate the pressure with the reducing valve. To increase or decrease the pressure in the train pipe, turn the handle of the reducing valve, as instructed at each terminal, or by the Road Foreman of Engines.

612. The pressure on the train pipe is indicated by the steam heat gauge on the engine, and it is required that care be used to keep an even pressure.

613. For temperature above zero:

5 Cars or less

50 pounds

6 Cars to 10 Cars

70 pounds

10 Cars to 15 Cars

85 pounds

Over 15 Cars

95 pounds

For temperature of zero or below:

5 Cars or less

60 pounds

6 Cars to 10 Cars

80 pounds

10 Cars to 15 Cars

90 pounds

Over 15 Cars

100 pounds

614. In the event of the Conductor requesting more steam pressure, Enginemen will comply, but not to exceed 100 pounds at any time.

615. When necessary to heat trains quickly, a pressure of 90 pounds can be used, and it must be reduced as soon as the steam has circulated through the cars. After a train has been heated, the pressure needed will vary according to the weather and length of the train.

616. If the reducing valve fails to work properly, regulate the pressure by the main steam valve.

617. Steam must be shut off by the main steam valve and no change made in the setting of the reducing valve, except to regulate the pressure to be carried in the train pipe.

618. The Engineman and Conductor on each run should agree to have the rear train pipe valve opened at a given point when approaching terminals and to have steam shut off at the engine about three minutes after the train has passed that point. On arrival at terminals, the couplings between the engine and first car must be disconnected and the hose hung up on the hook of the supporting chains to prevent damage to the couplings. This rule does not apply to trains hauled by motor cars which furnish steam heat from Otis boilers.

619. When there is any change to be made to a train, except to take cars on at rear end, before reaching the terminal the steam heat system must be blown out.

620. Enginemen must promptly report all defects in the steam heating apparatus on their engines, using the usual work report for this purpose.





621. After steam pipe hose on locomotives and cars are coupled, it is required that, on trains of nine or more cars, all steam supply valves be closed and train pipe valves left open. On trains of eight cars or less, the steam supply valves need not be closed unless necessary.

622. Turn steam on at locomotive and allow air and water to blow through the train line until live steam blows out of the rear hose; then close the rear train pipe valve, until only a very slight amount of steam escapes, after which open the supply valve in the rear car, leaving the blow-off valve open, until the air and water are blown out and live steam appears, after which close the blow-off valve and then proceed in a similar manner on each car toward the forward end of the train.

623. On very long trains it is occasionally necessary to open the rear train pipe valve to blow condensation out and prevent freezing of the train line or hose on the rear of the last train pipe valve, as well as to equalize the pressure through the train line.

624. The steam hose at the rear end of all trains must be hung up by the supporting chains to prevent damage to the couplings.




625. When the blow-off valve is closed, the water from the steam pipes can only drain through the trap and care must be used to keep the trap working freely.

626. The opening in the trap is regulated by the screw and nut at the end, and the adjustment must be made to permit a very slight amount of steam to escape with the water.

627. If the end of the trap freezes, it must be thawed with a torch or hot water.

628. If the trap cannot be made to work, the blow-off valve must be kept open enough to allow a small amount of steam to escape.

629. It is forbidden to use steam in a car when pipes are frozen or clogged so that steam does not escape from the blow-off valves.




630. The steam supply valve must be used to regulate the amount of steam for producing the required temperature of each car, which should be kept as near 70 degrees as possible. Also, this valve must be kept open sufficiently to supply steam necessary to prevent the trap from freezing.

631. If a car becomes over-heated, it must be promptly cooled by closing the supply valve and opening the blow-off valve for a minute, thus allowing the steam to escape from the radiating pipes.

632. In case the supply valves are frozen so that they cannot be closed, the steam should be turned on at the engine and each supply valve closed as it becomes warm and before the steam gets into the radiating pipes.

633. While trains are running at least once each 30 minutes the blow-off valves must be opened long enough to make sure that live steam escapes, thus assuring the drips from freezing. If it is necessary to reduce the temperature, and steam has been shut off from one side of the coach or from any radiator in mail or express cars, it must be turned on and blown through at intervals as above described.




634. When cars are dead-headed at the rear of a train, the steam hose must be coupled on all those heated by hot water circulation, and steam admitted into the steam pipe inside the car; with cars having the straight steam



equipment, the steam hose must be uncoupled and the rear train pipe valve on the first car forward of the dead- headed cars used as if that car was the last one in the train.




635. When a train is approaching the end of its run and about 15 minutes before it reaches the station, commencing at the front end of the train and working to the rear, Trainmen must fully open the supply valve and after an interval of about one minute open the blow-off valve wide, and promptly close the supply valve, and so on through each car. This will blow out all condensation from the car pipes and prevent freezing of the trap or blow-off on account of slow dripping of water after steam has been shut off.

635-a. When all supply valves are closed, open the rear train pipe valve wide. This will blow all water from the train pipe and couplings and prevent danger of freezing or scalding employees when uncoupling. After steam has been blown through the rear coupling about three minutes, the locomotive steam valve must be closed.

635-b. After steam has been shut off, all supply valves must be opened and all drip and blow-off valves wide open.




636. When approaching a station at which cars are to be disconnected, the train pipes and radiating pipes must be blown out as specified in Rule 635-b, on the cars that are to be left. The rear train pipe valve must then be opened and the first train pipe valve closed ahead of the cars to be uncoupled. All valves must be opened wide on cars that are to be left and all steam hose hung up by the supporting chains.



637. When baggage and express cars in a train are to have the doors sealed, Trainmen and Inspectors must see that the supply valves are shut tight and the blow-off valves opened wide under the sealed cars in order to permit escape of all condensation which may be caused by leaky supply valves, and must see that the auxiliary steam valve is closed in the branch steam pipe under the car. Should steam be required in a sealed car, Trainmen or Inspectors must be notified before the car is sealed so that all valves may be properly adjusted.




638. In heating or blowing out trains, great care must be taken that no more steam than necessary is allowed to escape and that it is not allowed to escape where it will cause annoyance to passengers or persons on station platform.




639. Particular attention must be paid to the ventilation of Steam heated cars so that plenty of fresh air may be secured without causing drafts.

639-a. The temperature of the cars should be regulated by steam supply valves and not by frequently opening and closing ventilators, as drafts and sudden changes of temperature are very objectionable. In general it is better to have a large number of ventilators open in the rear of the car than in the front. When necessary the sashes in the front and rear doors may be used as ventilators, but it is forbidden to so use them if any person be thereby exposed to draft.




640. In steam heated cars equipped with stoves, coal boxes must be kept filled with coal and stoves fixed so that, when needed, fires can be lighted without delay.



Where fires are used in such cars at stations, they must be drawn or allowed to go out before the train starts.




641. Before the train starts, Trainmen must see that all end train pipe valves are properly equipped with handles and that the valves are properly turned.

642. Train Conductors must promptly report by wire any defect in the steam heating apparatus on cars in order that such repairs may be made at the next station where there are Inspectors.




643. The Vapor System has steam at atmospheric pressure only, in the heating coils inside of the car. There are two separate coils on each side, that can be used separately in mild weather, or together when the temperature is low. A regulator under the car automatically regulates the temperature in the heating coils at 212 degrees, when the cut-out valves are in open position. The cut-out valves are located under the seats, near the center of the car, an arrow painted on the seat end denoting their location.





644. The Automatic Temperature Control Vapor System consists of the following equipment:

645. Vapor regulators and underneath connections from train pipe for steam supply are exactly the same as for standard hand operated Vapor System.

646. Magnetic Vapor Cut-out Valves, one on each side of car, instead of the two hand operated vapor cut-out valves required on each side of a standard passenger car.

647. Combination air and electric selector switch located near the electric light switchboard locker.

648. Thermostats, two thermostatic elements or tubes, in a single case, centrally located in body of each car.

649. The air operated electric selector switch determines whether the high or low thermostat shall be in control of temperatures.

650. The presence of air pressures in the brake train line, which is always a condition when cars are in service, automatically forces the selector switch to a position which maintains the 70 degree, or service thermostat in control of the heating system.

651. The absence of air in brake train line, when cars are laying over at terminals, automatically releases selector switch and maintains the 50 degree, or Yard thermostat in control of heating system.

652. The automatic temperature control vapor system is entirely automatic, and depends on the car lighting electric current for operation, whether in train service or laying over at terminals.

653. The only attention necessary by train or yard men is to see that the circuit breaker is always pushed in.

654. The only exception to this is in case the automatic operation of the system fails from any of the following causes:


Lighting Battery troubles,


Broken connections,


Circuit breaker button "snapping out" account of any obstruction at Magnetic Valve preventing its movement.



655. The Magnetic Cut-out Valve can often be released by moving the valve handle back and forth several times to allow the obstruction to pass through.

656. If this does not release it, cut out the electric current by turning the snap switch in the control cabinet to the "out" position.

657. This condition must be reported as quickly as possible, so that an electrician may make repairs and restore automatic control.

658. In the event of there being no air pressure in the brake system and a higher than 50 degree temperature is desired, pull up the button on the selector switch as far as it will go. This will put the high temperature thermostat in control of the temperature, just as would be the case if the air pressure was in the system.

659. The 50 degree temperature may again be restored by pushing down the button.

660. The application of air to the brake pipe will restore the automatic operation of the system, regardless of the position of the button.

661. Coats and other wearing apparel must be kept away from the thermostats.

662. Inspectors only are authorized to adjust automatic vapor regulators and steam traps except on thermostatically controlled cars.




663. In all systems using a water circulation for distributing heat through the car and steam in the source of supply, care must be observed to keep the pipes from freezing when steam is not available. To do this in cold weather a fire must always be built when the car is disconnected from the supply of steam for an unreasonable length of time, either at the end of its run, by side tracking, or in case of accident.

664. With all hot water systems the heater pipes and drums must be filled with water before using steam or fire, and with those cars having a double coil and two drums on the roof of the car, each set of circulating pipes and drums must be filled.




665. In starting, the steam heat apparatus on all cars in the train must be in proper working order.

666. Before applying steam to cars equipped with water circulating systems, or fires in the Baker heaters, the combination cock in the heater drum must be opened, and if there is no indication of water in the funnel, water must be added until it overflows at the drip opening in the cock.

667. In heating up trains or using steam in cars at stations, Inspectors must see that all traps are working properly and that all couplings, valves, hose and pipes are in good order.

668. As far as possible Inspectors must make all necessary adjustments of traps before train starts from terminal stations.

669. Before cars are left to cool down, Inspectors must see that all valves are opened wide and that all steam hose are hung up by the supporting chains.




670. In terminal or other yards where cars are heated from a stationary boiler, all pipe joints, valves and hose must be kept free from leaks. When cars are to remain for long periods on the heating plants the temperature must be kept only high enough to prevent the freezing of water pipes.

671. It is forbidden to raise the temperature above 65 degrees and not to this point until 15 minutes before



being separated from the yard plant, for service. It is also forbidden to overheat the cars for the purpose of cleaning.




672. Porters must regulate the temperature in all Pullman and Private Cars and Stewards in all Dining and Cafe Cars, provided, however that the Train Crew will be held responsible for knowing that no part of the steam heat equipment on the train is frozen.

673. Porters and Stewards must be familiar with and observe Rules.




674. Gas tanks on commuter and local cars must be filled only when the gauge pressure is at or below:



Atmospheres-From October 1 to March 31st, incl.



Atmospheres-From April 1 to September 30th, incl.

675. Before through line cars depart from a terminal, gas tanks must be filled to full capacity.

676. Taking the final readings of Pintsch gas gauges before complete equalization between the several tanks has occurred is forbidden. Where possible, 15 minutes must elapse after the filling hose is disconnected before reading is taken for entry on the record.

677. For the purpose of detecting any leaks, that may exist, not less than once each week, check readings of gauges must be taken on each car not less than three hours after filling. When there is any appreciable drop in pressure from that recorded, a soap suds test must be made of the pipes and connections and if any leaks are detected, if practicable, the repairs must be made before the car is again moved from the terminal, otherwise they must be made at the first opportunity.

678. When cars having Pintsch gas equipment are in shops for general repairs; all pipes and fittings must be examined and properly tested for leaks; and all tanks and filling connections thoroughly cleaned and all deposits of carbon and other foreign matter removed.

679. Exposed pipes on top of the cars must receive special attention and when renewal is necessary, extra heavy pipe used.




680. Before applying hose couplings to valves, clean all the bearing surfaces of the unions so as to prevent leakage through imperfect joints.

681. If doubtful as to the dryness or cleanliness of the inside of the hose, allow the gas to blow through it for a second before attaching to the car.

682. After the hose is connected, open the valve on the car, read and record the indication of the gauge, then open the valve on the pipe line and allow the gas to flow into the receivers. When the gauge indicates ten atmospheres shut both valves, closing the one on the car last.

683. When artificial light is used the Car Filler must use a protected lantern. The use of an open torch is forbidden.




684. The main cock, which is in the pipe leading from the floor to the ceiling in the men’s closet must be open full.

685. Open the globe of the lamp, then turn on the gas so as to give a flame small enough to avoid reaching and smoking the reflectors, then light the tips. When lighting mantle lamps, touching the mantles is forbidden.



686. Shut the globes and after a few minutes turn the gas up to give the required light. In shutting the globes, pushing on the glass is forbidden. Use the brass ring around same for that purpose.

687. When lighting for a tunnel, the main cock must be left partly closed until full light is required.




688. Turn off at each lamp and close the main cock.




689. The proper size of the flame should be obtained by adjustment of the check screws if any are used.

690. To obtain the best results the reflectors and glasses must be kept clean.

691. Occasionally dust or dirt from the inside surface of the pipes is carried along by the flow of gas to the burner tips and may cause badly shaped and smoky flames. This may be temporarily corrected by tapping the burner cluster. Such cases must be reported to the proper person and the trouble remedied by taking off the burner. removing the dirt and if necessary substituting new tips.

692. Leaks will generally be denoted by the smell of gas. The exact location may be determined by covering the suspected pipe or fittings with a little soap suds.

693. Repairs to lamps, burners or apparatus and regulation of flame must have prompt attention and reported to the proper authorities.

694. On cars having flat flame lamps, filling tanks with natural gas is forbidden.

695. Inspectors must promptly remove all leaky filling valves No. 65 and apply ones that are tight.




696. Go to the switch cabinet and throw in the main light switch, then turn on the several circuits by means of snap switches. If any or all of the circuits fail to light, the Train Conductor must request the Superintendent, by wire, to have a representative of the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company meet the train at the next point where such representative is stationed. However, if the adjoining car (either forward or rear) is electrically lighted and is equipped with a train line, the trouble may be temporarily relieved by the application of the train line connector.

697. The application of the train line connector before all lights in the defective cars have been switched off is forbidden. After the connector has been properly applied, close the large switch at the top right side of the switchboard in each of the cars connected, leaving the large switch open at the top left side of the defective car, then light the car as required.

698. On arrival of the train at its final destination, the train line connector must be removed and stored in its proper place.




699. Arrangements having been made with the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company for the application and maintenance of electric car lighting facilities on all cars so equipped, which are owned by the Erie Railroad Company, the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company have representatives permanently stationed at the following points; Jersey City, Hornell, Buffalo, Meadville, Cleveland, Kent, Marion and Chicago.





700. The contract with the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company specifies that the Railroad Company shall furnish, apply and maintain the following parts of each complete car lighting equipment:


Battery box, or boxes and their supports.


Cabinet to receive the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company’s regulating devices and switchboard.


Suspension plate for car body hung generators.


Side irons, generator suspension shaft or shafts, generator suspension shaft bearings and caps; end sill saddles and on Safety truck hung equipments, the connecting irons between the two side irons.


All wiring, conduits, fittings, fixtures (except lamps) required beyond the top of the lighting switchboard.


Call bells, annunciators, electrical devices and fans, unless fans are the product of the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company.

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